Antarctica

Girovai.com offers a great range of experiences on the white continent, luxurious tour cruises or a combination of flight and tour cruise, that will take in all the highlights of Antarctica. Off-board activities can include kayaking, mountaineering, ice climbing and camping.

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Geography

The Antarctica Is The Fourth Largest Continent, After Asia, America And Africa With Approximately 14 million square Kms. Its Shape Is Almost Circular And It Is Placed Almost Entirely South Of The Antartic Polar Circle.

The northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula is only 1000 kms. from south America while distances from the nearest costs of Africa are 3.800 kms., from Tasmania 2.530 kms., Australia around 3.135 kms. and New Zealand 2.200 km.

The Antarctica is divided into West Antarctica (or Minor) and East Antarctica (or Mayor).

Over 95% of the territory is covered by ice.

Source: Wikipedia.com

Wildlife

Because Of Its Climate, In The Antarctica There Is Little Vegetation And Very Simple Forms, Like Algae, Mosses And Lichens.

However, the northern coastal area of the Antarctic Peninsula and South West Indies have two native plants: the carnation and the southern grass. Apart from plants there are also species of mushroom filo (Deschapmsia, Cephalosporium balanoides and Acrostalagnus) among others.

This region also has a very special feature: ice flowers. These are formed on layers of sea ice from water vapor escaping from the cracks in the ice surface. On contact with cold air vapors are frozen, and the salt on the surface begins to crystallize, providing a nucleus to begin forming the flower.

Animals and their endemic species: The Leopard Seal, Weddell Seals and Penguins in their various species are examples of the rich fauna in the Antarctica. Its waters are home to the largest known animal of all times: the Blue Whale and the largest known invertebrates: the Colossal Squid, which can weigh about 500 kg and have (with the tentacles) a length of more than 15 meters.

History

It Is Estimated That The Antarctic Was Discovered In The Early Eighteenth Century.

The first explorer to cross the Antarctic polar circle was James Cook, captain of a British ship. However, he never saw the continent, he just circumnavigated it. The captain knew there was a southern continent due to deposits of rocks in the icebergs, although it was not the populated continent he expected.

In 1820, the sealer Nathaniel Palmer (USA) and British naval officers Branfield and William Edward Smith, sailed around the tip of the Antarctica.

The first person who landed on the Antarctic continent was John Davis, another US sealer, in 1821. In 1823, James Weddell, a British whaler, discovered the sea that bears his name and went to where no other boat had ever arrived, the continent’s southernmost point. It was not until 1840 that the rank of continent was granted to the Antarctic. There were three expeditions, a French, a Northamerican and a British, that sailed along the coast and noted that the land covered by ice was actually the continental mass.Since then, many expeditions went to the Antarctic to visit and explore the continent. Their purpose was now to search the South Pole. A British expedition led by Robert Scott, and a Norwegian one led by Roald Amundsen in 1910 undertook this search. Amundsen, with part of his team reached the South Pole on December 14, 1911, with the help of sleds pulled by dogs. Robert Scott’s expedition reached the South Pole on January 18, 1912, but all died back. The first to fly over the Antarctica were George Wilkins (Australia) and CB Eielson (USA) in 1928. The United States sent an expedition to the Antarctica after World War II, the largest sent to the Antarctic continent, consisting of more than 4,000 people, more than 20 aircraft and 13 ships. The purpose was to take pictures of the shore to make maps. In 1948, for the first time, a world leader reaches the continent; Chilean President Gabriel González Videla and his wife Rosa Markmann travelled for the opening of the General Bernardo O’Higgins Base in the Antarctica. Long term systematic scientific explorations in the Antarctic started in 1957. There are over 60 scientific stations established by 12 different nations. After the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 -which came into force in 1961 – the scientific research for peaceful purposes throughout the continent is allowed, and the drilling for oil or other minerals for at least 50 years, is prohibited.

Source: Wikipedia.com

Climate

The Weather In The Antarctica Is Polar, And The Temperature Here Is The Coldest Of The Planet. In The Middle Of The Antarctica, Temperatures Often Drop To -40 ° C During Winter. In Summer, Temperatures Rise A Bit To Reach -25 ° C Approximately.

The areas around the coast of the Antarctica are generally less cold, with temperatures around -20 ° C in winter and 0 ° C in summer.

It is also the driest place on Earth, a frozen desert. It never rains there due to low temperatures. It is also the most windy region in the world, the winds descend from the middle of the Antarctica to the coast.

Its lowest recorded temperature was -89.2 ° C at the Russian Vostok station, near the Antarctic Centre. Half of the year (summer) is always day in the South Pole, while the other half (winter) is always night.

Source: Wikipedia.com

What to Wear

Wardrobe Socks and thermal underwear, fleece jacket, widproof or ski pants, , fleece windproof, waterproof jacket, thermal gloves, fleece hat, comfortable shoes or sneakers trekking type.

Accessories Glasses with UV filters, sunscreen, lip balm, and camera and video camera, extra batteries, binoculars, backpack to carry for hiking and airbags “ziploc” for wet clothing.

Source: Wikipedia.com

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